Upward Ventilation – Gallup 1867

Again if you see a box hive with a crack in it from top to bottom large enough to put your fingers in, the bees are all right in nine cases out of ten. The conclusion I have come to is this, that with upward ventilation without any current of air from the bottom of the hive, your bees will winter well without any cobs.

Elishia Gallup, The American Bee Journal 1867, Volume 3, Number 8 pg 153.