Upward Ventilation – Gallup 1867

Again if you see a box hive with a crack in it from top to bottom large enough to put your fingers in, the bees are all right in nine cases out of ten. The conclusion I have come to is this, that with…

Downwards Expansion – Crane 1990

(Apis mellifera ligustica) and expanding downwards as the colony grows and increases its heat and honey production (P. 90).

Thermal Advantage – Owens 1971

Honeybees gain thermal advantage in cool climates by constructing their wax combs from the top of the cavity (bee hive) downwards, retreating upwards when they need to conserve heat.

Propolis – Seeley 1985

Depending on weather conditions, honey bees will close up any small holes and seal the cavity surface with plant resins of low water vapour permeability (i.e. propolis)

Entrances – Seeley 1985

Honey bees prefer entrances towards the bottom third of the cavity although if a higher entrance is available they will use it with increased frequency during the summer.